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Recommendation Of The Commission Of 6 August 2003 On Guidance On Provisional Methods Rev
Recommendation Of The Commission Of 6 August 2003 On Guidance On Provisional Methods Rev
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- td is the duration of the day period,/r/n/r/n- tn is the duration resulting from the night period,/r/n/r/n- td + te + tn = 24 hours./r/n/r/n2.1.2. Height of the receiver/r/n/r/nFor craze pre workout review the development of strategic noise maps, Directive 2002/49/CE provides for the placement of the reception point (or "assessment point") at a height of 4 ± 0.2 m above the level of the soil. Since Lden is a composite indicator that is calculated from Lday, JBHNews Levening, and JBHNews Lnight, this height is also mandatory for these indicators./r/n/r/n2.1.3. Weather correction/r/n/r/nAnnex I to Directive 2002/49/CE defines the characteristics of the "year" period with respect to the sound emission ("one year corresponds to the year considered for the sound emission") and the weather conditions ("and a half year as far as the weather circumstances"). With regard to the latter, the Directive does not provide any further information on what should be understood by the average year./r/n/r/nIn weather circles it is usual to infer the average weather conditions of a place from a statistical analysis of 10 years of detailed weather data measured in that place or its proximity. The need for long-term measurements and analysis makes it difficult to obtain sufficient data for all places for which noise maps should be produced. Accordingly, in cases where sufficient data are not available, it is suggested that a simplified form of weather data should be used in proportion to the occurrence of variations in the conditions of propagation. Following the example of the simplified assumptions contained in XPS, such data should be selected in accordance with the precautionary and prevention principles that apply to the European Union's environmental regulations, 5 bodybuilding supplements which protect citizens from potentially harmful or dangerous effects. In light of the above, a conservative approach (favorable to propagation) is recommended when the aforementioned simplified weather data are selected. Thus, the approach shown in table 1 in the development of weather corrections for the calculation of noise indicators in the European Union is recommended:/r/n/r/nTABLE 1/r/n/r/nTable of decision for weather correction/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n2.2. Adapting the "XPS" method of measuring the noise of the traffic rolled/r/n/r/n2.2.1. Description of the calculation method/r/n/r/nThe provisional calculation method recommended for the noise from the road traffic is the French national method "NMPB-Routes-96 (SETRA-CERTU-LCPC-CSTB)", mentioned in the "Arrêté du 5 mai 1995 relatif au bruit des infrastructures routières, Journal officiel du 10 mai 1995, article 6" and in the French standard "XPS". This method describes a detailed procedure for calculating the sound levels caused by traffic in the vicinity of a road, taking into account the weather effects on the spread./r/n/r/n2.2.2. Weather correction and long-term calculation of levels/r/n/r/nThe Llongterm long-term level is calculated using the following formula:/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- LF is the calculated sound level in conditions favorable to the propagation of sound,/r/n/r/n- LH is the measured sound level in homogeneous sound propagation conditions,/r/n/r/n- p is the long-term occurrence of weather conditions favourable to the propagation of sound determined by 2.1.3./r/n/r/n2.2.3. Summary table of the necessary adaptations/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n2.3. Ferroviary noise/r/n/r/n2.3.1. Description of the calculation method/r/n/r/nThe recommended provisional calculation method for rail noise is the national calculation method of the Netherlands, published in "Reken - in Meetvoorschrift Railverkeerslawaai '96, Ministerie Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening in Milieubeheer, 20 November 1996", which provides two different calculation systems, SRM Ithod (simplified method) and JBH News SRM II (method). The conditions for the implementation of one or the other of these systems, as set out in the Dutch document, should be met in order to determine what will be used for the development of strategic noise maps under Directive 2002/49/CE./r/n/r/n2.3.2. Summary table of the necessary adaptations/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n2.4. Aircraft noise/r/n/r/n2.4.1. Description of the calculation method/r/n/r/nThe provisional calculation method recommended for aircraft noise is Document 29 of the ECAC.CEAC, "Report on Standard Method of Computing Noise Contours around Civil Airports", visit their website 1997. Among the different methods of modeling flight trajectories, Annex II, point 2 of Directive 2002/49/CE provides that the segmentation technique mentioned in section 7.5 of Document 29 of CEAC shall be used. However, such a document does not specify the procedures necessary for such segmentation calculations. These guidelines provide such procedures (see item 2.4.2)./r/n/r/nIt should be noted that in 2001 the European Civil Aviation Conference (CEAC) undertook a review of its Document 29 to incorporate the most advanced technologies to model noise curves around the airports. Although Directive 2002/49/CE, published in July 2002, makes explicit reference to the 1997 version of document 29 of the CEAC, the revised version should be taken into account once approved by the Conference, in order to incorporate it into annex II of Directive 2002/49/CE as a recommended method of computing aeronautical noise, if deemed appropriate and necessary. The introduction of this new method should be preceded by an assessment of its usefulness for the strategic mapping of noise, as prescribed by Directive 2002/49/CE./r/n/r/n2.4.2. Segmentation technique/r/n/r/nIn accordance with Directive 2002/49/CE, the level of sound exposure generated by an aircraft during its operations should be calculated using a segmentation technique. However, although CEAC Document 29 mentions this technique, it does not provide the means to perform the calculations. The present Guidelines recommend the use of the segmentation method described in the "Technical Manual of the Integrated Noise Model (INM)", version 6.0, published in January 2002. This method is briefly described below./r/n/r/nThe flight path (both in its straight and circular sections) is divided into segments, all of them straight (at constant power and speed). The minimum length of a segment is 3 m. Three x-y points are calculated for each subark. These three points define two linear segments; the first point is at the beginning of the subark, the third at the end, and the second at the center of the subark./r/n/r/nFor each segment of the flight path or (if necessary) of the segment of the extended flight path, the nearest perpendicular point (PCPA) is determined to the observer and the oblique distance of that PCPA to the observer (see figure 1)./r/n/r/nFigure 1. Determination of the nearest perpendicular approximation point (PCPA) in the flight path and oblique distance d for a P1P2 segment, when the CP calculation point is on segment a), in front of segment b) or behind segment c./r/n/r/n(a)/r/n/r/nIMAGE OMITTED IN PAGE 54/r/n/r/n(b)/r/n/r/nIMAGE OMITTED IN PAGE 54/r/n/r/n(c)/r/n/r/nIMAGE OMITTED IN PAGE 54/r/n/r/nThe oblique distance d to the PCPA defines which data should be taken from the curves Ruido-Potencia-Distancia (NPD); also defines the elevation angle The distance in the horizontal plane of the CP calculus point located on the floor to the vertical projection of the PCPA defines the lateral distance for the calculation of the lateral attenuation (if applicable)./r/n/r/n- In case of variation of the height in the segment, the following height will be determined: if the CP calculation point is on the segment, the height will be used on the PCPA (linear interpolation); if the CP is behind or in front of the segment, the height will be used at the end of the segment closest to the COP./r/n/r/n- In case of variation of the speed in the segment, the following speed will be determined: if the CP calculation point is on the segment, jbhnews the speed will be used on the PCPA (linear interpolation); if the CP is behind or in front of the segment, the speed will be used at the end of the segment closest to the COP./r/n/r/n- In case of variation of the power in the segment, or of the sound level according to the power (?) the following sound level will be determined: if the CP calculation point is on the segment, the sound level will be used on the PCPA (linear interpolation); if the COP is behind or in front of the segment, the sound level will be used at the end of the segment closest to the COP./r/n/r/nThe proportion of sound energy of a segment or "sound fraction" is calculated with the method used in INM 6.0./r/n/r/nIf the default data mentioned in point 3.3.2 are used (based on LA,max, the "scale analysis" mentioned in the INM 6.0 Technical Manual should be calculated as follows:/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 54/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- v is the actual speed at m/s,/r/n/r/n- It's the duration of the plane's passage in seconds./r/n/r/nThe "scale analysis" is introduced to ensure that the total exposure obtained from the calculated "noise fraud" is consistent with the NPD data./r/n/r/nThe sound level of the full passage of an airplane is calculated by adding the levels of the sound events of the individual segments on an energy basis./r/n/r/n2.4.3. Calculation of total noise levels/r/n/r/nBefore exposure to noise from total traffic can be determined at a point of calculation, the level of sound exposure (SEL) is to be calculated for each operation of each aircraft, as follows:/r/n/r/n- if the calculations are based on NPD SEL data for a reference speed (usually 160 knots for reaction aircraft, and 80 knots for small propeller planes):/r/n/r/nPAGE OMITTED PAGE if the calculations are based on LA,max NPD data (such as the default data mentioned in point 3.3.2):/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 55/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- SEL(?,d)v,ref is the level of noise exposure at a coordinate point (x,y) caused by a movement on arrival or departure route of an airplane with a push ? at the distance d shortest measure from the noise-power-distance curve, for a push ? and a shorter distance d,/r/n/r/n- LA(?,d) is the sound level at a coordinate point (x,y) produced by a movement on arrival or departure route of an airplane with a push ? at the shortest distance from the noise-power-distance curve for a push ? and a shorter distance d,/r/n/r/n- (ß,l) is the additional attenuation of the sound during the lateral propagation to the direction of the plane, for a horizontal lateral distance l and an angle of elevation ß,/r/n/r/n- ?L is the directivity function for the noise of the bearing in the takeoff behind the starting point of the shooting,/r/n/r/n- ?v is the correction to take into account the actual speed in the flight path where ?v = 10.lg (vref/v), being:/r/n/r/n- vref the speed used in the NPD data;/r/n/r/n- v the actual speed on the flight path,/r/n/r/n- ?A is the correction of the duration according to the rate v calculated according to point 3.3.2,/r/n/r/n- ?F is the correction for the finite length of tracking of the flight path./r/n/r/nThe number of movements of any group of aircraft in any of the flight paths for one year must be determined separately for day, evening and night periods./r/n/r/nThus, the Lden and Lnight noise indicators of the 2002/49/CE Directive are calculated as follows:/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 55/r/n/r/nand/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 55/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- Nd,i,j is the number of movements of the group of j planes in the flight path i during the day of an average day,/r/n/r/n- Ne,i,j is the number of movements of the group of j planes in the flight path i during the evening period of a midday,/r/n/r/n- Nn,i,j is the number of movements of the group of j planes in the flight path i during the night of a midday,/r/n/r/n- Tn is the duration of the night period in seconds,/r/n/r/n- SELi,j is the level of sound exposure of the group of j planes in the flight path i./r/n/r/nThe number of movements in an average day is calculated as the average number of movements for one year, using the following formula:/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 56/r/n/r/nwhere the movements are counted separately for the diurnal, evening and night periods, and are distinguished with the index d for the day period, and for the evening and n for the night./r/n/r/nThe formula for Lden adds +5 dB additional to the evening period (a factor of 3,16), and +10 dB (a factor of 10) to the night period, legal steroids dbol reviews as correction factors for the number of movements in those periods./r/n/r/n2.4.4. Summary table of the necessary adaptations/r/n/r/nThe following table presents the contents of Document 29 of CEAC, chapter by chapter, showing the similarities, differences and additions necessary to meet the requirements of Directive 2002/49/CE./r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n2.5. Industrial noise/r/n/r/n2.5.1. Description of the calculation method/r/n/r/nThe provisional calculation method recommended mexican steroids for sale industrial noise is ISO: "Acoustics - Attenuation of sound propagation outdoors, Part 2: General method of calculation". This method, called "ISO" in the present Orientations, specifies an engineering method for the calculation of the attenuation of sound during its outdoor propagation, in order to predict the levels of environmental noise around various sources, including those of industrial character./r/n/r/n2.5.2. Summary table of the necessary adaptations/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n3. EMISSION DATA/r/n/r/n3.1. Ruido of the traffic rolling - "Guide du bruit 1980"/r/n/r/n3.1.1. Procedure of measure/r/n/r/nXPS refers to the "Guide du Bruit 1980" as a default emission model for recent blog post the calculation of noise from the traffic. If a member State adopting such a provisional calculation method wishes to update the emission factors, the action procedure described below is recommended. It should be noted that in 2002 the French authorities initiated a draft revision of emission values. These new values and methods developed to obtain them, when published by the competent authorities, should be taken into account in order to be able to use them as data for the calculation of noise from the traffic, if deemed appropriate and necessary./r/n/r/nThe noise emission level of a vehicle is characterized by the maximum sound level of LAmax pass in dB measured at a distance of 7.5 meters from the axis of the vehicle's trajectory. This sound level is determined separately for different types of vehicles, speeds and traffic flows. Although the slope of the road is taken into account, the same does not happen with the pavement. To preserve compatibility with the original measurement conditions, the acoustic characteristics of the vehicles that circulate on the following coatings should be measured: concrete concrete, bituminous concrete of very scarce thickness 0/14, semi-grained bitumin concrete 0/14, surface seal 6/10, and surface seal 10/14. A pavement correction is then introduced according to the system presented at point 3.1.4./r/n/r/nMeasures can be carried out on isolated vehicles or on specific circuits in controlled conditions. The speed of the vehicle should be measured with a Doppler radar (which has a precision of approximately 5% at low speeds). The traffic flow will be determined either by subjective observation (accelerated, slowed or fluid) or by measurement. The microphone is placed at 1.2 m above the ground and at 7.5 m distance perpendicularly to the vehicle's displacement axis./r/n/r/nFor use with XPS and in accordance with the specifications of the "Guide du Bruit 1980", the Lw sound power level and the E sound emission are calculated from the Lp sound pressure level and the speed of vehicle V through the following formula:/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 58/r/n/r/nand/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 58/r/n/r/n3.1.2. Noise and traffic emissions/r/n/r/n3.1.2.1. Noise emission/r/n/r/nNoise emission is defined as follows:/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 58/r/n/r/nWhere V is the speed of the vehicle./r/n/r/nThus, the E emission is a sound level that can be described in terms of dB(A) as the Leq sound level in the reference isophone due to a single vehicle per hour in traffic conditions that are function of:/r/n/r/n- the type of vehicle,/r/n/r/n- speed,/r/n/r/n- traffic flow,/r/n/r/n- the longitudinal profile./r/n/r/n3.1.2.2. Types of vehicle/r/n/r/nTwo kinds of vehicles are used for noise prediction:/r/n/r/n- light vehicles (with less than 3.5 tonnes of payload),/r/n/r/n- heavy vehicles (of payload equal to or greater than 3.5 tons)./r/n/r/n3.1.2.3. Speed/r/n/r/nFor reasons of simplicity, the vehicle speed parameter is used in this method for all speed ranges (between 20 and 120 km/h). However, at low speeds (inferiors at 60 or 70 km/h, depending on the situation) the method is perfected taking into account traffic flows, as described below./r/n/r/n0/r/n/r/nTo determine the long-term sound level in Leq it is enough to know the average speed of a vehicle park. The average can be defined as follows:/r/n/r/n- the average speed V50, i.e. the speed that reaches or exceeds 50% of all vehicles,/r/n/r/n- the average speed V50 plus half the typical deviation of speeds./r/n/r/nAll average speeds determined with any of these methods that are less than 20 km/h are set at 20 km/h./r/n/r/nIf the available data do bodybuilders use steroids not allow a precise calculation of the average speeds, the following general rule can be applied: in each segment of the track the maximum speed allowed in the same. Each time the authorized speed limit changes, a new segment of the track must be defined. A supplementary correction is also introduced for low speeds (inferiors at 60 or 70 km/h, depending on the situation), and corrections should then be applied for one of the four types of traffic flow defined below. Finally, all speeds below 20 km/h are set at 20 km/h./r/n/r/n3.1.2.4. Types of traffic flows/r/n/r/nThe type of traffic flow, complementary parameter to that of speed, takes into account the acceleration, deceleration, engine load and traffic flow in pulses or continuum. Four categories are then defined:/r/n/r/nFluid Continuous Flux: Vehicles are moved at near constant speed by the considered track segment. It is spoken of "fluid" when the flow is stable in both space and time for periods of at least ten minutes. Variations may occur in the course of a day, but these must not be abrupt or rhythmic. In addition, the flow is not accelerated or slowed, but it records a constant speed. This type of flow corresponds to the traffic of highways, motorways and interurban roads, and the one of the urban rapid roads (except in the peak hours), and large roads of urban environments./r/n/r/nContinuous flow in pulses: flows with a significant proportion of vehicles in transition (i.e., accelerating or slowing), unstable in time (i.e., abrupt variations of flow occur in short periods of time) and space (i.e., at any time irregular concentrations of vehicles occur in the treated track section). However, it is still possible to define an average speed for this type of flow, which is stable and repetitive for a long enough period of time. This type of flow corresponds to the streets of the urban centers, important roads that are close to saturation, connection paths or distribution with numerous intersections, parking lots, pedestrian steps and access to housing areas./r/n/r/nAccelerated pulse flow: It is a pulse flow and therefore is turbulent. However, a significant proportion of vehicles is accelerating, which means that the notion of speed only makes sense in discreet points, as it is not stable during displacement. It is the typical case of the traffic that is observed in the fast tracks after an intersection, in the access to the highways, in the tolls, etc./r/n/r/nPulse decelerated flow: It is the opposite flow to the previous one, as a significant proportion of vehicles is slowing down. This type of traffic is generally observed in the large urban intersections, in the motorway and fast roads exits, in the approximation to tolls, etc./r/n/r/n3.1.2.5. Three longitudinal profiles/r/n/r/nThree longitudinal profiles are defined below, which allow the difference between steroids and testosterone of sound emission to be taken into account according to the pathway slope:/r/n/r/n- a horizontal track or stretch whose slope in the sense of traffic is less than 2 %,/r/n/r/n- an upward road whose slope in the sense of traffic is greater than 2 %,/r/n/r/n- a descending road whose slope in the sense of traffic is greater than 2 %./r/n/r/nIn the case of one-way pathways, this definition is directly applicable. In the case of the routes through which vehicles circulate in both senses, it is necessary to calculate each driving sense separately and [empty] then accumulate the results to obtain precise estimates./r/n/r/n3.1.3. Quantification of noise emission values for different types of traffic rolled/r/n/r/n3.1.3.1. Schematic representation/r/n/r/nThe "Guide du bruit" provides nomograms that give the value of the sound level Leq (1 hour) in dB(A), (also known as sound emission E, described in point The sound level is given separately for a single light vehicle (emission Elv sound) and anavar vs winstrol for a heavy vehicle (emission sound "Heyv'" per hour. For these different types of vehicles, E is speed function (see point, traffic flow (see point and longitudinal profile (see point Although the sound level shown in the nomograms does not provide for paving corrections, these guidelines incorporate such a correction system (see point 3.1.4)./r/n/r/nThe level of acoustic power dependent on the LAwi frequency, in dB(A), of a complex point source i in a given band of octave is calculated from the individual sound emission levels corresponding to the light and heavy vehicles indicated in nomogram 2 of the "Guide du Bruit 1980" (called "nomogram 2" in the present Orientations) by means of the equation:/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 59/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- LAw/m is the total level of acoustic power by subway in dB(A) attributed to the specified source line, and is obtained with the following formula:/r/n/r/nOMITTED BY PAGE 59/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- Elv is the sound emission of light vehicles as defined in nomogram 2;/r/n/r/n- Ehv is the sound emission of heavy vehicles as defined in nomogram 2;/r/n/r/n- Qlv is the light traffic volume during the reference interval;/r/n/r/n- Qhv is the volume of heavy vehicles during the reference interval,/r/n/r/n- ? is the correction made to take into account the sound level produced by the pavement, defined in point 3.1.4,/r/n/r/n- li is the length of the line of sources represented by a source of component points I in meters,/r/n/r/n- R (j) is the spectral value, in dB(A), by band of octave j, indicated in table 2./r/n/r/nTABLE 2/r/n/r/nNormalized specter of traffic noise by 8th-sized bands with weight A, calculated from the specter in third- octave bands according to EN TABLA OMITTED IN PAGE 60/r/n/r/n3.1.4. Correction of pavement/r/n/r/n3.1.4.1. Introduction/r/n/r/nAbove a certain speed, the total noise emitted by a vehicle is dominated by the contact between the tire and the road. This noise depends on the speed at which the vehicle circulates, the pavement of the road (in particular the porous and insonorizing surfaces) and the type of tire. The "Guide du bruit 1980" provides a standardized sound emission value for a standardized type of pavement. The method described below is a proposal to introduce pavement corrections. It is compatible with the provisions of the EN ISO standard./r/n/r/n3.1.4.2. Types of pavement/r/n/r/n- Asphalt smooth (hormigon or safe steroids asphalt mastic): the reference road surface defined in EN ISO . It is a dense and textured surface, in asphalt concrete or mastic with a maximum size of the arid of mm./r/n/r/n- Porous pavement: pavement with at least 20% empty volume. The surface must be less than five years old (the age restriction is due to the tendency of porous surfaces to lose absorbing power over time, as the vacuum is filled. This age restriction may be lifted if special maintenance is performed. However, after the first five years, measurements should be made to determine the acoustic properties of the pavement. The soundproof effect of this pavement is based on the speed of the vehicle./r/n/r/n- Concrete cement and rough asphalt: includes both concrete and rough texture asphalt./r/n/r/n- smooth textured adochining: cobbled with a distance between blocks below 5 mm./r/n/r/n- Thick textured adochining: cobbled with a distance between blocks equal to or greater than 5 mm./r/n/r/n- Others: This is an open category in which member States can introduce corrections to other areas. To ensure harmonized use and results, the data must be obtained according to the EN ISO standard. The data obtained must be entered in table 3 In all measurements, the paces of passage must be equal to the standard's baseline speeds. The Statistical Pass Index (SPBI), Statistical Pass-By Index, is used to assess the effect of the percentage of heavy vehicles. In each of the three percentage intervals defined in table 3 (0-15 %, % and  25%) will be used respectively./r/n/r/nTABLE 3/r/n/r/nStandardized procedure for correction of pavement/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n3.1.4.3. Recommended correction procedure/r/n/r/nTABLE 4/r/n/r/nRecommended correction procedure/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n3.2. Ferroviary noise/r/n/r/n3.2.1. Introduction/r/n/r/nThe RMR method of calculating ferroviary noise has its own emission model which is described in detail in chapter 2 of the original Dutch text. This emission model can be used in all member States steroids without working out having to change it./r/n/r/nWith respect to emission data, the present Guidelines recommend at point 3.2.2 the Dutch emission database as a default database. However, the methods of measure described in point will not allow member States to develop new emission data to compensate for the lack of information, in the default database, on non-Dutch rolling material circulating through non-Dutch railways./r/n/r/n3. If you loved this informative article and you would love to receive details relating to crazy mass cutting stack reviews generously visit our website. 2.2. The sound emission model/r/n/r/nPrior to calculating the "concurrent sound pressure level", all vehicles using a given railway line and following the appropriate service guidelines should be assigned to one of the 10 categories of rail vehicles specified in point or, if appropriate, to additional categories, after measurements are made under item Existing train categories/r/n/r/nThe categories in the Dutch emission database are mainly differentiated by its propulsion and braking system, as follows:/r/n/r/n_/r/n/r/n3.2.2.2. Measuring method/r/n/r/nThe sound emission characteristics of a rail vehicle or a track can be determined by measurements. The measurement procedures are described in:/r/n/r/n- "Reken- at Meetvoorschrift 'Railverkeerslawaai 2002, Ministerie Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening' in Milieubeheer, 28 maart 2002"./r/n/r/nThe following three procedures allow the identification of the characteristics of the new categories of trains and the non-Dutch national bearing material that circulates through non-Dutch roads (procedures A and B), as well as the non-Dutch routes./r/n/r/n- Procedural A is a simplified method that allows determining whether a rail vehicle can be included in an existing category indicated in point This method can also be used for new vehicles (not yet manufactured), in which it is impossible to make noise measurements. The category attribution is performed mainly on the basis of propulsion type (diesel, electric or hydraulic) and the braking system (disks or shoes)./r/n/r/n- Procedure B describes methods of obtaining emissions data from rail vehicles that do not necessarily fit into an existing train category. A so-called "free category" is introduced in which any type of vehicle may be included, provided that its sound emissions are determined in accordance with this procedure. The data thus obtained take into account the distance between vehicles, the sound radiation of the track and the roars of the latter and the wheels. The different noise sources (wheeling, rolling and aerodynamic noise) and their heights are also taken into account./r/n/r/n- The C procedure allows to determine the acoustic characteristics of the construction of the tracks (travies, basalt beds, etc.). The calculation method is based bodybuilders on steroids before and after the fact that the characteristics of the track, in eighth bands, are independent of the type of vehicle and its speed. In order to verify it, it is necessary to take measures in the same place at two additional speeds (respectively,  and . Differences in the calculated characteristics of the track should be less than 3 dB in each of the eighth bands. Otherwise, we need to investigate what factors can continue to be based on speed./r/n/r/n3.2.2.3. Emission model/r/n/r/nIf the calculations are performed by following SRM I, the emission values in db(A) are determined as follows:/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 62/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- Enr,c is the emission factor by category of rail vehicles when the train is not stopping,/r/n/r/n- Er,c is the emission factor in the milling phase,/r/n/r/n- c is the category to which the train belongs,/r/n/r/n- and it's the total number of categories present./r/n/r/nThe emission values by category of rail vehicles are determined by the following formula:/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 62/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 62/r/n/r/nWhere standard emission values ac, bc, ar,c and br,c are shown in RMR./r/n/r/nIf SRM II is used, emission values are determined by eighth-bands for each category of train and each height of acoustic source (up to five heights). Once the emissions of the different categories of trains are marked, the specified railway line section is calculated, taking into account the passage of the different categories of trains (and the fact that there are no sound sources at all levels), as well as the passage of trains in different conditions (against or not). The emission factor in eighth and i bands is calculated as follows:/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nWhere n is the number of train categories that use the considered railway line,/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nand/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nare respectively the emission factors of the units of a train that are not stopping and those that are slowing for each category of trains (c = 1 to n), in the band of octave i, and at the height of evaluation h (h= 0m, 0.5 m, 2 m, 4 m and 5 m - depending on the category of the trains), which is calculated as follows:/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nwhere:/r/n/r/n- OMITTED PAGE PAGE 63/r/n/r/nand/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nand, on the other hand,/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/nand/r/n/r/nPAGE-OMITTED PAGE 63/r/n/r/n, are the emission factors for the category of trains c respectively in the phase of non-straining and braking, for an eighth and at a height h,/r/n/r/n- Qc is the average of the units in the category of railway vehicles considered to be not in the braking phase,/r/n/r/n- Qbr,c is the average of units in the category of railway vehicles considered to be in the braking phase,/r/n/r/n- Vc is the average speed at the pace of rail vehicles that are not slowing down,/r/n/r/n- Vbr,c is the average speed at the pace of railway vehicles that are in the braking phase,/r/n/r/n- bb is the type of railway/condition,/r/n/r/n- m is an estimate of the number of discontinuities of the road,/r/n/r/n- Cbb,i,m is the correction by discontinuities of the track and roaring of the rails./r/n/r/n3.3. Aircraft noise/r/n/r/n3.3.1. Introduction/r/n/r/nAfter analyzing the available databases, the present guidance contains at point 3.3.2, a default recommendation to calculate aircraft noise around the airports using CEAC Document 29, with the adaptations introduced at point 2.4./r/n/r/nAs emphasized in the introduction, the use of the recommended default data is not mandatory, and Member States may use others if they consider it appropriate, provided that they can be properly used with CEAC Document 29./r/n/r/nMoreover, attention should be paid to ongoing initiatives related to the establishment of an internationally agreed database on the noise of civilian aircraft. In particular, in the future, Eurocontrol and the American Federal Aviation Authority could jointly offer such a database./r/n/r/n3.3.2. default recommendation/r/n/r/nFor the calculation of aeronautical noise, apart from the analysis of easily accessible databases, it has been discovered that the following documents (see below) provide exhaustive information on noise-power-distance data and performance data for most types of civilian aircraft, including the new generation of low-noise aircraft./r/n/r/n- "ÖAL-Richtlinie 24-1 Lärmschutzzonen in der Umgebung von Flughäfen Planungs- und Berechnungsgrundlagen. Österreichischer Arbeitsring für Lärmbekämpfung Wien 2001.",/r/n/r/n- "Neue zivile Flugzeugklassen für die Anleitung zur Berechnung von Lärmschutzbereichen (Entwurf), Umweltbundesamt, Berlin 1999"./r/n/r/nThese data are based on an aircraft classification and contain LA,max levels. The following formula allows to calculate the SEL values using the duration of the envelope as an additional parameter./r/n/r/nSEL is calculated in dB from LA,max by/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 64/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 64/r/n/r/nwith T0 = 1 second and T in s is expressed as follows:/r/n/r/nOMITTED PAGE 64/r/n/r/nwhere/r/n/r/n- A and B are constants that differ between takeoff and approximation and between different fixed wing geometry aircraft,/r/n/r/n- d is the oblique distance in m (see point 2.4.2),/r/n/r/n- V is the speed at m/s./r/n/r/nSound levels are given for pushes in takeoff and landing. The reduction of push after take-off is taken into account through reductions in the sound level/r/n/r/n?L at different altitudes and speeds./r/n/r/nFor each type of aircraft the default take-off profiles are given with speed V and altitude H for a distance O from the track from the start point of the bearing and for greater distances with dH/dO/r/n/r/nSound pressure and performance data are normalized for a temperature of 15 °C, a humidity of 70 % and a pressure of 1013,25 hPa. They can be used for temperatures up to 30°C, provided that the relative humidity and temperature product is more than 500.



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